This is going to be a long one, so buckle in.
Let’s start with a hypothetical. Suppose I were to ask the average person if it was safe to apply a homemade cream everyday that had the chemical “homosalate” in it, their reaction would be “no.” Upon googling, they’d learn that the chemical homosalate has the potential to disrupt hormones. Their reaction would fall under the “common sense” aka “You’re dumb for even asking this” type of response.
At the same time, if I were to ask the average person whether it’s safer to use sunscreen or not use sunscreen, they would say “use it.” Upon googling, they might encounter an official-looking webpage from the American Academy of Dermatology saying “everyone” should use sunscreen “every day if you will be outside.”
I imagine you know what I’m going to say next: that sunscreen has homosalate in it. And it’s not just homosalate, “FDA has put the entire sunscreen industry on alert by proposing that in just two instances do we have enough safety information about ingredients to determine whether they’re safe and effective: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide.” 
In case you don’t know why this is a problem, here’s an article from the Washington Post about how men’s sperm counts have consistently declined for over 40 years, and are now down by 50% (even controlling for exercise and all that, validated over hundreds of studies, in all western countries). Even though this isn’t enough to affect fertility, that’s sort of liking pointing out a plane can still fly with one engine. If it turns out this was over something as stupid as sunscreen, in my opinion that’d be much worse than 9/11. It may not turn out to be sunscreen, but it’s gonna turn out to be something we consider safe.
Now at this point in the article we can blame “corporations,” an easy target, change nothing, and call it a day. Or “media,” that’s a great reason to hang up one’s hat. Or maybe even “the administration,” if it’s your turn (regardless of whether this problem has persisted from a dozen administrations).
But this article isn’t about who to be mad at for 10 minutes and move on. This article isn’t sunscreen, or fertility, or the FDA, or politics. Everything you’ve read so far serves just to illustrate of a larger point.
This article is about “common sense.”
This article is about how we have a propensity to follow, and repeat “common sense.” This articles about when two pieces of “common sense” contradict, like described above, we “parrot” them both anyways. This article where I hope to convince you that we now live in an era where parroting is no longer necessary, and actively destructive.
A web of factoids
Humor me, while I describe one way to think about the way a messy tangle of opinionated people with differing experiences slowly come to a rough consensus about what’s true. What they are coming to a consensus about, and how long it takes them, varies (be it Covid, vaccines, usefulness of email, marijuana use).
I propose that most of us in society are like little machines, executing code all the time via our behaviors. Much of the code we execute is hardcoded (breathing), some of it we choose ourselves. But most of it we download from those around us, without even realizing we’re doing it.
We’re constantly watching and copying the behaviors of those around us (“norms”) following them, and then spreading them on to others. This isn’t necessarily good or bad in the abstract. Many of the things we copy are very useful (proper hygiene, how to chop vegetables). Many of the things we copy are necessary to fit in (grooming and attire). Many of the things we copy are completely arbitrary and vary between cultures (should I eat at a table rather than sitting on the floor?). Some of the things we copy are bad (e.g. for a while it was cool to smoke).
I want to emphasize this is copying and not a conscious, calculated choice. We like to pretend that we’re aware and in control of our behaviors, which is why I want to be extra clear. It’s not that people drew out a chart of “pros” and “cons” and said, “Yep, smoking does make sense for me, for the next 3 years, but eating at tables is essential.”
So the model I’m proposing is that all information dissemination can be viewed as 3 behaviors
- Creating: Generating new information (e.g. “I invented a new type of concrete”)
- Parroting: Relaying information blindly (e.g. “Joe just discovered a new type of concrete”)
- Filtering: Selectively relaying information (e.g. keeping your mouth shut because you have no idea if Joe has any clue what he’s talking about)
So parroting is basically another word for the copying I’ve just described. And it’s how most information is transmitted.
Half what I know, I don’t actually know. I knew there were 9 planets in the solar system back in 5th grade, despite having never knowingly seen any of them with my own eyes except Earth. I suspect if I had told anybody else that “No there are 8, Pluto doesn’t count” back in 5th grade, I would have been looked at like an idiot for not understanding “common sense.”
Most of the time this seems to make a lot of sense. It would be pretty absurd if teachers weren’t allowed to teach how many planets there were unless they had personally seen them all? So it would seem there is a very healthy reason for us to “parrot” this information about planets (take it verbatim, pass it along without questioning or verifying it).
But books exist, and they do exactly that (parrot). And because they are printed permanently, you know nothing was lost along the way. But compared to word-of-mouth books are slow to print, expensive, and difficult to update (say, when a planet is demoted). So it would seem parroting is still useful.
But now the internet exists. And it makes parroting obsolete. We can have a widely-distributed article on exactly what planets there are, why they are planets, how we know this, how to verify it for yourself, and update it instantaneously. This is almost what wikipedia is. I wouldn’t entirely say it makes traditional education obsolete, but for the many subjects it is plus youtube made an adequate alternative for the motivated learner.
The Parrot’s-eye view
A parrot would reject this point entirely. A parrot would say “Well there are actual agreed-upon experts out there, and there’s nothing wrong with being a relay.” And there are fields where this is fairly true.
For example, there are experts in aviation, and the fact that we can generally trust planes not to crash midflight over a track-record of decades objectively validates that those experts and systems.
But there are also fields, like economics, where the track-records of experts predicting things is scarcely better than chance, and there’s little consensus on anything, and when there is consensus it’s sometimes wrong anyways (e.g. big short).
The question of which experts are actually experts, is so confusing we almost would want an expert on the topic. What makes somebody an expert? Being on the TV box? Being in political office? Using big words? An expensive degree? A lot of followers? Having ceremonial garbs? Published journal articles?
So then what? We can’t have authorities?
No. We can’t. You can’t get the title “authority” and then get to say whatever you want free of second-guessing. Think of it like the ideal of academia — there is no “president of science;” there are peers and slowly-earned trust. Nobody is above criticism.
We’re all moving to a model of everybody gets an opinion, and the attention you receive is proportional to the argument you make. And when you have a good track-record, your signal gets amplified more. In addition to the scientific community this is the basic premise of decentralization and “web 2.0” replacing gatekeepers.
Twitter, to some extent, is a system to replace parrots, and allow the informed to reach the uninformed without human-telephone. I can’t say the execution is perfect.
What should change?
I think our scientific community has long since abandoned hierarchy, and particularly this chain-of-command mentality. There is no need to parrot, rather you cite a source.
What I notice though, during covid, is how ineffective our chain-of-command government has been. I think many individuals have been weeks ahead of the government by using simply internet sources to correctly challenge a lot of “official” information around ventilators, curve-flattening, efficacy of masks, distribution of bailout money, and I expect more examples to follow.
What I’m advocating for is a change-in-mentality, which I think is already slowly happening on its own, in which we recognize that some experts aren’t really experts at all, and we make peace with the fact that leadership isn’t about government positions.
We’ll know this succeeds when, before starting a quarantine, our elected officials publicly share risk models with the wider community, solicit input, and update decisions as on-the-ground information changes.
But if that seems like wishful thinking, let the simplest takeaway be this, that there is now a word, a derogatory one, for every time somebody plays the expert on a topic they haven’t researched by simply reiterating. Perhaps the WHO claims masks don’t help, but you’re a parrot, you wouldn’t know, and you wouldn’t know if the WHO would know.